Most ancient 'chartered' town corporations, such as that of Youghal, were abolished in 1840, except for the largest towns such as Cork, Dublin etc., where they were retained but extensively reformed. From 1828 onwards, elected commissioners for lighting and cleansing were established in some county towns including Bandon, Clonakilty, Kinsale, Midleton and Youghal. Under the Towns Improvement (Ireland) Act 1854, elected commissioners were established in Clonakilty, Fermoy, Kinsale, Mallow, Midleton, Cobh, Skibbereen, Youghal, Bantry and Macroom, with wider powers including courthouses, cleansing, lodging houses, sewers, water supply, lighting, fire fighting, regulation of hackneys, and the provision of libraries. Under various public health acts, towns with a certain population were also designated urban sanitary districts, including Fermoy, Kinsale, Cobh, Clonakilty and Youghal. Under the 1898 Local Government (Ireland) Act, all urban sanitary authorities were made urban district councils (U.D.Cs), with other towns, such as Passage West, retaining town commissioners with more limited functions. In 2001, all U.D.Cs and town commissioners were renamed Town Councils.